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邹复雷

2015年04月30日 11:26:24  来源:中国书画收藏频道

www.hg989933.com:Peopleattendthe"ILoveEurope"marchwhichwascalledtocelebratethe60thanniversaryoftheTreatyofRomeinWarsaw,Poland,onSaturday.[Photo/Agencies]Citingdata,someBelgianmediaoutletshavereportedthatChineseinvestorsinBelgiumhavecreatedupto18,500jobsforlocalresidents.AndonaverageoneChineseinvestorhascontributed€1million($1.08million)inrevenue,reflectingthehighproductivityandprofit-makingcapabilityofChineseinvestment.SomeCentralandEasternEuropeancountriesarefacinglaborshortagespartlybecauseofgrowingChineseinvestmentinmanufacturingandtheendofEuropeanUnion'seconomicstagnation.Inthepastfiveyears,Huawei,forexample,hascreatedupto12,000jobsintheEU.Lastweek,BelgiumandHungarybecamefull-timemembersoftheChina-ledAsianInfrastructureInvestmentBank,whichmeansone-thirdofthebank's70membersarefromEurope.AndthedevelopmentpathoftheAIIBsuggestscooperationamongmemberswilldeepentobringAsia,EuropeandAfricacloser.ButdespitetheEUmarkingits60thanniversary,itsleadersareinasombermood,asEuropeanCommissionPresidentJean-claudeJunckerputit,becauseoftheUnitedKingdombeginningtheformalprocesstoleavetheEUandtheuncertaintiescreatedbytheUnitedStatesadministrationunderPresidentDonaldTrump.AftertheEC'srecentdecisiontoassessChina'sinvestmentactivitiesintheEUmorestrictly,somemembersoftheEuropeanParliamenthavealsoproposedthatforeigninvestmentinEuropeshouldbecloselymonitoredin"strategicsectors"suchasenergy,waterandtelecommunications.ManyobserverssaythemoveistargetedatChina,whereEUbusinesses,accordingtoEuropeanpoliticians,don'thavethesameaccessthatChineseenterprisesdoinEurope.ThepoliticiansevenclaimthatEUinvestmentinChinaisfalling.Thefactis,Europeaninvestors,alongwithotherforeigninvestors,arenowbeingtreatedonparwithdomesticinvestorsinChinaafterhavingenjoyedpreferentialtreatmentforthreedecadessincethebeginningofreformandopening-up.AndsincetheEU'saccumulatedinvestmentinChinaisalreadyhuge,itisnaturalforittomaintainthatlevelorevenfallslightly.Asfarasexpandingbusinessandinvestmentoverseasisconcerned,EuropeisanoldhandwhileChinaisanewcomerifonegoesbythetwosides'tradinghistory.Giventhefacts,perhapsthisistherighttimeforChinaandtheEUtodiscusstradedifferencesandmakepolicydecisions.TheunderstandinginBrusselsnowisthatBeijingispromotingglobalizationandtheworldneedstosupportit.Aspartofitscommitmenttoglobalization,Chinahasbeenencouragingoverseasinvestmentandofferingpublicgoods.However,despiteitshistoryofstrengtheningregionalintegration,theEU,manysuspect,isshowingsignsofresortingtoprotectionismostensiblytoprotectEuropeanenterprisesandproducts.It'sanothermatter,though,thatmanyEuropeanbusinessesandmemberstatesdon'tsupportit.AdvocatingglobalizationisnottheresponsibilityofChinaalone.TheEUandtheUSandotherglobalplayersshouldpromoteglobalizationmoreintenselythanChina.TheChina-EUpartnershipisunique,astheyworkmorecohesivelyduringhardtimes,butnotnecessarilyduringnormaltimes.AcarefulexaminationoftheinteractionsandexchangesbetweenBeijingandBrusselsduringtheglobalfinancialanddebtcriseswillprovethecontention.Howevertruethatmaybe,thepriorityfortheEUnowistotakeswift,decisiveandstrategicmeasurestoidentifynewareas-China'sgrowinginvestmentforexample-tohelptheBrussels-Beijingpartnershiptoovercometheodds.Moreimportantly,theEUshouldrealizethattakingahardlineagainstChineseproductsandinvestmentatthiscriticaltimewouldbeabigmistake.Thereasonissimple:morejobsandbetterlivelihoodswillmakemoreEuropeans,especiallythoseyouthsstrugglingtoearnadecentliving,havemoreconfidenceintheEUasaneconomicunion.TheauthorisdeputychiefofChinaDailyEuropeanBureau.fujing@chinadaily.com.cn

邹复雷,元道士。亦能诗、画。斋居蓬荜,琴书余兴以写梅自乐,得华光老人(仲)仲不传之妙。

至正二十年(1360)作春消自图。《铁纲珊瑚、支那名画宝鉴、式古堂书画汇传考》

《春消息图卷》纸本墨笔。弗里尔美术馆藏。 图中所绘梅花干苍枝劲,花朵繁密。画家经劲健和时带飞白的笔触皴写粗干,枝条用笔遒劲挺峭。梅花的画法尤为奇特,既不是用笔点染,亦非以线勾勒,而是用纸或绢卷蘸墨点成。全图显现的是一种苍健的风格。卷尾自题"蓬居何处索春回,分付寒蟾伴老梅,半缕消虚室冷,墨痕留影上窗来。至正庚子新秋"。钤"蓬荜居"、"复雷"二印,迎首钤"春消息"一印,按至正庚子为至正二十年即公元一三六零年。拖尾有元杨维桢、顾宴跋、元杨瑀题引首。图中有清高宗弘历诗题。钤有明黄琳,清卞永誉、安岐,清乾隆、嘉庆内府,晚清缪素筠,近人郭葆昌、金城等鉴藏印。此图为邹复雷传世的惟一画作。

杨维桢有诗云:"鹤东炼师有两复,神仙中人殊不俗。小复(雷)解画华(仲仁)梅,大复(元,复雷兄)解画文同竹。"

元代人物画比起山水画相对减少,其主要原因由于一般画家对人生抱着一种冷漠态度:方今画者,不欲画人事,非画者不识人事,是多疏于人事之故也。"但也不乏高手。善画人物最著名的有刘贯道、何澄、钱选、赵孟頫、任仁发、王振朋、周朗、颜辉、张渥、卫九鼎、王绎等人。刘贯道、何澄、王振朋服务于宫廷,刘贯道师法晋唐,集古人之长,为一代高手;何澄继承金代院体遗规,人物线描多方折笔,背景中的山石树木则多用焦墨而露锋芒,开元代人物画逸笔先路;王振朋笔法劲健,神,情生动,格调清雅。其白描人物,间之以淡墨渲染,突破了一般白描画只用线描的程式。钱选人物画衣纹多用顾饱之游丝描法,工稳而不板滞,蕴清秀于古拙,自成一种格调。赵孟頫做人物、鞍马画法用铁线描或游丝描,风格古朴,具有多种面貌。任仁发的人物鞍马画多用游丝描,笔法工细流畅,与赵孟頫顺齐名。周朗是元代中后期著名人物画家,衣纹笔法潇洒,设色淡雅,有唐人遗意。张渥、卫九鼎均以画白描人物见长,各具特色。张用笔潇洒,被誉为妙绝当世"。卫的自描人物也不在王振朋、张渥之下。王绎善作肖像画,造形准确,神态生动,成就最为突出。此外颜辉、朱玉等在宗教人物画方面也都师承有自,各具面貌。

元代花鸟、竹石、梅、兰等题材的绘画,随着文人画的发展而发生了显著的变化。墨笔花鸟以及竹石梅兰的广泛流行,是其突出的标志。在艺术上讲求自然天趣,不假雕饰,以素净为贵"。虽然以唐代边蛮和宋代黄签、徐熙为规范的宋代院体花鸟画此时尚未中断,但毕竟比起水墨花鸟、竹石梅兰等艺术形式已相形见绚。究其原因,一方面由于元代审美观念的变异,另一方面也是由于水墨花鸟、竹石梅兰等最适合于文人以笔墨来写意寄兴。故元代许多山水画家也都兼擅水墨花鸟和竹石梅兰。

元代以善画花鸟而著名的画家有钱选、陈琳、王渊,张中等人。他们在继承五代两宋院体花鸟的基础上,各变其法,钱选变宋院体花鸟的工丽细密为清润淡雅,晚年更有不假雕饰的水墨花鸟画法。王渊师法黄签一派,作品多用水墨,变黄签工整富丽为简逸秀淡,成就突出。陈琳、张中虽法宋代院体,却以粗简为其特色,突破了宋代院体花鸟画工丽细密的规格程式。枯木竹石画家最著名的如李衍、赵孟頫、柯九恩、吴镇,顾安、倪瓒等人,大都继承文同或王庭络传统而有新的发展和变化。而张逊善画双钩竹,在元代几成绝响。以画梅花著称者有邹复雷、王冕等人,尤以王冕擅长墨梅在画史上享有盛名。

(责任编辑:常丽丽)